Tag: India

Sher Shah, Akbar & Aurangzeb: The Indian Administrators par Excellence

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When one considers the gigantic undertakings of Sher Shall Suri for public welfare, the mighty development plans he put through successfully, his splendid administrative achievements and revolutionary judicial reforms, and weighs them against the fact that his rule extended over a bare five years, one becomes convinced automatically of the unique versatility and brilliance of this genius among kings. Some of his attainments during that brief span of time were so marvelous that many a well-established government would find it hard to accomplish them during much longer periods of time. Sher Shah, indeed, is one of the greatest rulers the world has ever seen.

Marshman Clarke writes,

Without doubt Sher Shah was a most wise, kind-hearted and sagacious person. He was as accomplished an administrator as he is famous as a soldier. Though he got little respite from wars he reformed every branch of administration and made it perfect. The laws and regulations enacted by him continued to be in force even after his death till Akbar adopted them as models for his administrative reforms which later became known as Ain-i-Akbari1


Gold and silver coins during Akbar’s reign

Then there is Akbar. Whatever the difference between the teachings of Islam and his religious views and the Din-i-Ilahi he founded, and however much may a Muslim historian grieve at the intemperate developments that took place during the later part of his reign, it goes without saying that judged by his high-mindedness, legislative and administrative ability, conquests and annexations, and natural knack for leadership and the splendid patronage he extended to arts and learning, he was a magnificent ruler and empire-builder.


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Silver Coins of Aurangzeb’s reign

Aurangzeb’s equal also will not easily be found in history. His excellent virtues of mind and character, his eventful life loaded with destiny, half-a-century of continuous warfare and incessant struggle, his enormous conquests and far-reaching reforms, his simple, ascetic life, his matchless courage, fortitude and determination, the strict regularity of his hours, the management of a vast, sprawling empire, the direct personal command of armies in the battlefield even in old age, the zealous observance of the obligatory as well as supererogatory prayers, and unceasing love for learning and study in spite of extreme occupation mark him out as a man and an emperor of a class by himself. He was a man of steel who knew not what fear, indecision and despair were. He is sure to walk in his own right, into any list that may be prepared impartially and with a due sense of responsibility of great men of all times.

  1. Marshman Clarke:  History of India (1842)—Re-translated from Urdu


P.S. The article has been created from the works of great Islamic scholar Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Ali Miyan).


Ten Gifts by Muslims to India


The noted historian, Sir Jadunath Sircar, has, in a paper entitled ‘Islam in India’, enumerated ten gifts, which, according to him, the Muslims conferred on India. Some of these we have already discussed in this blog; the gifts are as follows:

  1. The establishment of contact with the outside world
  2. Concept of divine unity (belief in only one God)
  3. Concept of equality and brotherhood (no caste system & untouchability)
  4. Rights of women and other social reforms
  5. Introdcution of new branches of learning in India
  6. Political unity and uniformity of culture and dress specially in the upper classes
  7. A common official language and an easy, simple style of prose in the evolution of which both the Hindus and Muslims have taken part
  8. The promotion of regional languages under the aegis of the Central Government so that there may ensue general peace and contentment and equal opportunities for literary and cultural advancement may be made available to all
  9. The revival of maritime trade which was originally in the hands of the people of South but had been lying suspended for a long time
  10. The formation of the Indian navy

P.S. The article has been created from the works of great Islamic scholar Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Ali Miyan).

Unani Medicine- Muslims Rulers gave the most Advanced Contemporary Disease Treatment System to India


The Muslims brought to India a new system of medicine, the Unani system—which, before the dawn of modern medicine, was universally recognized as the most advanced and scientific system for the treatment of diseases. During their hey-days, the countries of Iraq, Iran and Turkestan were the most important centers of the Unani system of medicine in the world, and it was there that its greatest exponents and practitioners were born during the medieval age. After the establishment of Muslim power in India, and encouraged by the generous patronage the Muslim rulers extended to men of learning and ability, a steady stream of outstanding masters of the system poured into the country for a period stretching over five hundred years. Due to the priceless services rendered by these worthy men and their pupils—their spirit of dedication and high proficiency—the Unani system touched its peak in India. The indigenous systems (Ayurveda) faded into insignificance before the Unani system. No city or town was left without a practitioner of the Unani school. This system was cheap, simple, and in harmony with the Indian climatic and temperamental conditions. So it spread in India very quickly and did a wonderful service to the people, composed as they were mainly of the poorer classes. The Indian physicians, by their contribution, lent further glory to it. During the declining phase of Muslim rule, Delhi and Lucknow were its two major strongholds and now India remains the only country where this system is still in vogue.