What are the Rights of Allah’s Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and Angels over Muslims

Rights of Muhammad

It is through the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) that we came to know about the relevant features of the divine existence, attributes and facts about Allah’s pleasures and displeasures, likes and dislikes which were revealed to him through Angels. Many matters of worldly losses and gains, therefore, came to light through the, Angels. Many Angels have been appointed to do work which are beneficial to us and they are discharging their duties with Allah’s permission. That is why Allah’s rights also include the rights due to the Prophets and the Angels. The favours granted to us by the last of the Prophets, Muhammad being the greatest of the Prophets, his rights due to us are also the greatest. Some of those rights are:

  1. To believe in the prophethood of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)
  2. To believe Prophet Muhammad is the Last Prophet of Allah.
  3. To obey him in all commands and injunctions.
  4. To glorify and love him from heart and soul.
  5. To send him blessings and salutations (Darud & Salam) regularly.

The Rights of the Honorable Angels of Allah:

  1. To believe in the reality of their existence.
  2. To believe that they are innocent and can commit no sins.
  3. To pronounce the salutary words “peace be upon them”.
  4. To avoid entering a mosque after eating things emitting foul smell (e.g. raw garlic, onion, radish, betel-leave, tobacco, burning kerosene lamp, lighting match, etc. in a mosque) or emitting wind in the mosques, as these offend the Angels.

There are many other acts that offend and annoy the angels and which should be avoided as much as possible, such as:

  1. To keep photos and pictures.
  2. To keep and tame dogs, unless this is permissible under the laws of the Shariah
  3. To tell lies.
  4. To delay through laziness taking bath to purify the body from coition (Ghusl-e-Janabat), thereby missing obligatory prayers.
  5. To lay bare the body even in privacy without a necessity recognizable in the Shariah.

 

P.S. The article has been created from the works of world renowned and great Islamic scholar Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi.

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What are the Rights of Almighty Allah over Mankind

Rights of Allah
The foremost right imposed upon the servants of Allah is that we owe to Allah Himself, who created and preserved, as a gift to His servants, blessings of many kinds. He brought them out of error to guidance. He gave them glad tidings of diverse blessings as a reward for following the path of right guidance. The rights which the servants owe to Allah are as follows;

  1. To have faith in the existence and attributes of Almighty Allah according to the injunctions given in the Holy Quran and the Traditions.
  2. To adopt such beliefs, deeds, dealings, conduct and character which conform to the Quran and the Traditions and to give up those which are in conflict with the Quran and the Traditions.
  3. To accord preference to Allah’s pleasure and love over the pleasure of anyone other than Allah.
  4. One should not harbour love or malice for anyone, and do good or bad to anyone except for the sake of Allah.

 

P.S. The article has been created from the works of world renowned and great Islamic scholar Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi.

How Great Sufis Morally and Socially Reformed the Indian Society

Maulana Rumi Quote

The virtuous Sufis would call upon those taking bai’at (the oath taken by a person at the time of becoming disciple the of a saint) at their hands to;

  • Offer earnest repentance for their sins
  • Make a solemn affirmation of loyalty and obedience to God and the Prophet.
  • Refrain from licentiousness and self-­indulgence, injustice, oppression and violation of the rights of others.

These pious teachers addressed themselves to the moral elevation of their disciples by

  • prescribing measures for the eradication of vices like vanity, malice, jealousy and lust for wealth and power.
  • They urged their disciples to remember God and to do well to His creatures and practice self-abnegation and contentment.

Besides the bai’at which symbolized forging of a special link between the guide and the disciple, the revered teachers also exhorted and gave good counsel to whoever came to them and strove to awaken in their hearts the love for the Divine and the ambition to seek His pleasure and to strive with all his might for self-correction and inner reform.

Illustrative of the powerful, inspiring and morally regenerating influence exercised on the society by the Sufi leaders through their tremendous sincerity, moral excellence, preaching and instruction is the following extract from the renowned historian, Ziauddin Barni, depicting the social conditions prevailing in India during the reign of Alauddin Khilji.

The leading Sufi saints at the time of Alauddin Khilji were Sheikh-ul-Islam Nizamuddin, Sheikh-ul-Islam Alauddin and Sheikh-ul-Islam Ruknuddin. A world received enlightenment from them and took the bai’at at their hands. Sinners were inspired by them to repent for their sins and thousands of evil-doers and habitual defaulters of Namaz (Daily 5 times Muslim Prayer)  abandoned their evil ways and became devout worshipers; a strong fer­vour was created among them for religious deeds and their repentance attained perfection. The obligatory duties of worship and Divine ordinances in the other spheres of life began to be observed as a matter of course. Excessive attachment to worldly desires and aspirations, which lies at the root of most of the evils, got reduced under the force of the high morality, asceticism and profound self-denial of these spiritual masters……………… People grew truthful as a result of their blessings; they became honest in the management of worldly affairs and were fired by the ambition to improve and evolve their inner selves due to the inspirational influence exercised by the laudable moral conduct, abstinence and spirituality of the Sufi leaders……..”1

The historian goes on to say:

In the last years of Sultan Alauddin’s rule the general moral level had improved so much that a majority of the people abstained from drink, adultery, gambling and other social and moral perversions. The major sins were shunned as equivalents of infidelity. Muslims refrained from open usury and hoarding for fear of each other’s censure. Adulteration, deceit and under-­weighing were eliminated from the market.1

It is manifestly impossible to give a coherent, historical picture of the reformation brought about in public morals by the Sufi divines in few lines. It is enough to know here that the Sufi saints have made an enormous contribution towards the evolution of a healthy, conscientious environment in India which is the nation’s greatest asset and which has provided it with worthy leaders and redeemers at every critical turn of history.

Leaving aside the intervening centuries, the material on which is widely available in the memoirs and biographies of the spiritual leaders, we give an instance from the life of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, a religious reformer and Sufi saint of the 19th century, to show the extent of the moral impact of his personality on society. It is recorded in connection with his brief stay in Calcutta that;

the liquor business in that great city was suddenly brought to a standstill. The liquor merchants complained to the authorities that though they wore paying the taxes regularly, they had been forced to close down their business since the arrival in the city of a saint under whose influence more and more Muslims were getting reformed daily and taking the vow not to indulge in intoxicants any more. They did not even look at the liquor shops now.”2

These venerable divines enjoined upon their new disciples to observe

  • fairness in monetary dealings
  • paying back of debts
  • scrupulous satisfaction of the claims of others.

To cite an example, the great Sufi Khwaja Nizamuddin Aulia was bidden emphatically by his spiritual mentor, Khwaja Fariduddin Ganj Shakar to do his level best always to placate the opponent and render to everyone what was his due.

Khwaja Nizamuddin Aulia owed a person some money and a book he had borrowed from someone had got lost. When on arriving Delhi, he went to settle these accounts, the person to whom he owed the money remarked, “It seems you are coming from the society of Muslims” while the owner of the book said, “Is it always like that at the place from where you are coming ?”3

People likewise were imbued with the desire to oblige and be of help to others under the guidance and instruction of the Sufi saints. During the entire course of the long Haj journey, Syed Ahmad Shaheed and the large band of his companions missed no opportunity to do an act of public service. While they were sailing down the Ganges they came across a boat which was laden with cotton at the landing-ghats of Mirzapur. The owner of the cotton was in need of labourers to remove it to the godown. Seeing his plight, Syed Saheb at once told his companions to unload the boat and so energetically did they apply themselves to the task that in a couple of hours the whole cotton was taken off and deposited in the godown. People who witnessed the deed were left thoroughly amazed;

“What sort of men they are” they commented among themselves“They did not even know the cotton merchant and yet they have toiled so hard for him without charging a pie. Surely, they are the devout men of God.”4

What was achieved by the Sufi divines in India in the sphere of general moral upliftment was solely the result of their evolved spirituality and loftiness of character. No government, no law no other institution could bring about so much improvement in so many people or keep them so steadily within the bounds of moral propriety and rectitude.

 

  1. Condensed from Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi by Ziauddin Barni p. 346
  2. Waqa-i-Ahmadi
  3. Fawaid-ul-Fuwad, pp.14
  4. Seerat Syed Ahmad Shaheed, pp.249

P.S. The article has been created from the works of great Islamic scholar Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Ali Miyan).

Extraordinarily Popular Sufis of India with Huge Number of Disciples

Sufi Saints

The Muslim epoch in Indian History was in fact, heralded by the Sufi divines, particularly by Khwaja Moinuddin Ajmeri who also laid the foundations here of the Chistiya Order of Islamic mysticism. From the earliest days the rich vied with the poor and the high with the low to do homage to these elevated self-denying men of God till the whole sub-continent was lit with a thick cluster of spiritual luminaries and their religious establishments.

Apart from the more important towns, there was hardly a Muslim hamlet which was left without a moral teacher or a spiritual guide. The enthusiastic devotion of the people to the Sufi saints and their overwhelming responsiveness to religious emotion can well be imagined by the following facts:

The daily average of votaries staying at the Khanqah (Spritual Seminary) of Syed Adam Bannuri (d. 1643) was one thousand. They took their meals at the Khanqah. A great throng of men, including hundreds of theological doctors, followed the saint wherever he went. It is stated in Tazkira-i-Adamiya that 10,000 persons formed his entourage during the visit to Lahore in 1642. Seeing the phenomenal popularity of Syed Bannuri, Emperor Shahjehan became so apprehensive that he thought of a plan to send him out of India. He sent to him a large sum of money and then suggested that as the possession of sufficient money makes the Haj pilgrimage obligatory for a Muslim, therefore Syed Bannuri should not waste any time in proceeding to the Haj to discharge his duty. The saint thereupon migrated from India.

Hazrat Mujaddid’s celebrated son and spiritual deputy, Khwaja Mohammad Masoom (d. 1668) had as many as 9,00,000 disciples who did the Bai’at (here it means the oath taken by a person at the time of becoming disciple the of a saint.) and repentance at his hand. Among the huge number of his disciples, 7000 rose to become his Khalifas (Spiritual Deputies).

It is recorded about Shah Ghulam Ali in Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aasar-us-Sanadeed that “not less than 500 destitute persons used to live in his Khanqah all of whom were fed and clothed by him.”

Unprecedented scenes of popular enthusiasm were witnessed during the missionary tours of the famous divine and spiritual leader of the 19th century, Syed Ahmad Shaheed, as also during his journey to Calcutta while on the way to Arabia for the Haj. In many of the towns that fell on Syed Shaheed’s route few persons were left who did not offer bai’at and repentance at his hand. At Allahabad, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Azimabad, (Patna) and Calcutta, specially, his disciples must have run into lakhs. The limit was that at Varanasi the indoor patients of the Sadar Hospital sent to him a petition begging that since they were unable to move out he might condescend to visit them in the hospital so that they could take the bai’at. About a thou­sand persons became his disciples every day during his two months stay at Calcutta. From morning till late at night a stream of men and women would pour in where he was staying. There was hardly any time left for Syed Saheb to attend to his personal needs. When it became impossible to administer the vow to everyone individually, it was arranged for the aspirants to collect in a large house where Syed Saheb went and initiated them into the fold. Seven or eight turbans were unrolled on the ground when he went there and the aspirants were told to hold them at different places, while one end of them was held by Syed Saheb himself. He then taught them the fundamentals of the Faith and read out the oath in a loud voice like Azaan (muslim call to prayer) which they repeated, and thus the ritual was completed. This was done seventeen or eighteen times each day.

What are the Major Sufi Orders and Why Sufism became Popular in India

Quran Verse

Although the chief Sufistic Orders had their origin outside India, they attained the greatest success in this country. This was due partly to the circumstances of history and partly to the inherent Indian character and temperament. There branched forth from these Orders such fraternities in India which themselves grew into permanent orders and recognized schools of Islamic mysticism.

The well-known Sufistic Orders are;

  1. The Qadiriya Order
  2. The Chishtiya Order
  3. The Naqshbandiya Order
  4. The Suhrawardiya Order

Apart from these four major Sufi Orders, there are other Orders and fraternities that are essentially Indian and are attributed solely to men who were born in India and returned to its dust, as for instance;

  1. The Madariya Order
  2. The Qalandriya Order
  3. The Shattariya Order and
  4. The Mujaddidiya

India has been the standard-bearer of Tasawwuf (Islamic mysticism) and spiritual evolution and self­-reform since the 17th Century. It was at that period of time that an infinite number of persons profited spiritually from Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and his illustrious son and successor, Khwaja Mohammad Masoom. The deputies of the latter were found in several foreign countries like Iran, Afghanistan and Turkestan. Similarly, votaries from Turkey, Baghdad, Syria, Samarkand, Bukhara, Egypt, China and Ethiopia were drawn to the Khanqah (Spiritual seminary) of the 19th Century saint of the Mujaddidiya line, Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlavi. The Mujaddidiya Order was popularized in Iraq, Syria, Kurdistan and Turkey by Sheikh Ghulam Ali’s deputy, Maulana Khalid Rumi, where it still endures.

Then, at the beginning of the 20th century, it was the turn of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir to rise to dizzy heights of fame. He was popularly known in the Islamic World as the ‘Spiritual Guide of the Arabs and the Non-Arabs’. Innumerable Arabs and non- Arab Haj pilgrims who came to Arabia, availed themselves of priceless spiritual guidance of Haji Imdadullah during his stay in that country. Even in the contemporary Muslim World, it is India which is keeping the spirit of God-seeking alive. An uninterrupted chain of earnest and exalted men of God has enabled it to maintain its distinction as the universal centre of spiritual and Sufistic endeavour. It is now the sole refuge in the world of the votaries of Sufism.

What is “Nuzhat-ul-Khawatir” and Why Indian Muslims Must Know About it

Nuzhat-ul-Khawatir

There are many instances of men of endeavour, faith and learning that arose among Indian Muslims and have left an indelible mark on the ‘Sands of Time’. Indian Muslims have produced World-class leaders, legislators, debaters and orators. The fame of their thinkers and poets has traveled to Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey and their works have been translated into a number of foreign languages, particularly of Muslim countries.

The eight volumes of Nuzhat-ul-Khawatir contain an account of 5,000 Muslims of confirmed excellence in various walks of life who sprang from the Indian dust. It shows how inexhaustible is the capacity of this land of ours to throw up sons of exceptional ability and unusual caliber in all branches of human activity.

The glorious past of Indian Muslims holds for them the guarantee for the future. Though at present they are passing through the most critical phase of their history, the Muslims of India are determined to ensure for themselves an honorable place in the Indian sun. Their personality is indestructible, it is touched with eternity.

P.S. The article has been created from the works of great Islamic scholar Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Ali Miyan).

Who Saved Islamic Beliefs from Corruption During 17th Century in India

Mujaddid Alf i Saani

Owing to various natural and historical factors, India had come to be the nerve-centre of religious and spiritual correction and reform during the declining phase of Islamic supremacy. Proselytizing and reformationist activities made such an advance in India that many other countries were also influenced by them. Religious preachers and renovators were born here who on the strength of their earnestness, learning and popularity, the effectiveness of their appeal and the great number of people who profited by their efforts and by their natural harmony with the real spirit of Islam and its call constituted the choicest examples of Islamic missionaries and reformers.

The most elevated among these religious guides and redeemers was Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624) upon whom men of vision and understanding have conferred the title of Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani (the Renovator of the Second Millennium). It was he who;

  1. Renewed and strengthened the bond of Indian Muslims with Islam
  2. Saved the Shariat from being corrupted by innovations and the apostasy of the extremist Sufis, as they were openly inclined towards the pantheistic doctrine of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (God is everything and everything is God).
  3. It was he again, who rescued the Mughal Empire from the whirlpool of irreligiousness it had got caught into.
  4. Put a check on the highly dangerous movement for the unity and amalgamation of faiths (Deen-i-Ilaahi)
  5. Put a check on the revival of Brahmanism.
  6. The great devotee of Allah and indefatigable crusader in His cause, Aurangzeb, too, was a product of his mighty struggle.

The Sufistic Order founded by him still endures, besides India, in countries like Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Kurdistan and Syria.The popularity this Order acquired through the efforts of his disciple, Allama Khalid Shahrazori Kurdi (d. 1826) in Arabia, Kurdistan, Syria and Turkey has not come by the way of any other Sufi System1

1. Usman-us-Sanad: Asfat Mawared fi Tarjuma Hazrat Saiyyadna Khalid, and Mohammad Amin Ibn Omar Abideen: Sallul Husam-il-Hindi Le Nusrat-i Maulana Khalid Naqshbandi

P.S. The article has been created from the works of great Islamic scholar Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Ali Miyan).