When the Muslims had set their feet on the Indian soil, there were here the ancient sciences and philosophy and an abundance of food and raw materials, but, culturally, India had lapsed into isolation from the civilized world for a long time. The mighty mountains on the north and the sea on the other three sides had prevented it from having a regular intercourse with the world that lay beyond its frontiers. The last foreign invader to visit India before the Muslims was Alexander the Great. During the period intervening between the two events India had remained severely cut off from the outside world. There had been no exchange of knowledge with the foreign countries. No new idea, no fresh cultural impetus had reached it from abroad, nor had it been able to send out anything from its own ancient fund of wisdom.
Starting of Age of India’s Contact with the Outside World
It was at a time like this that the Muslims made their debut on the Indian stage. They were, in those days, the most advanced community in the East. They brought with them to India a new, practical and highly rationalistic religion, mature knowledge, a progressive culture and an evolved civilization which included within it all that was best in the cultural stock of many nations—it represented a synthesis of the natural wholesomeness of the Arab disposition, the dainty refinement of the Iranians and the rugged simplicity of the Turks.